HISTOIRE DE LA VOITURE ELECTRIQUE

1903

sources
 
Invention de la diode et de la cellule photo-électrique.

Salon de l'Automobile à Paris - Les petites voitures
(L. Hospitalier, La Nature)

Tramways électriques interurbains aux Etats-Unis (Léo Robida, La Nature, 1903)




Le 6 octobre 1903, une électromotrice AEG atteint 200 km/h

BORBEIN (H.F. Borbein Co,St. Louis, Mo, USA)

BORLAND (Borland-Grannis Co, USA, 1903-1916)
Chicago IL de 1903 à 1914, et Saginaw MI (avec Broc ou Argo ?) de 1914 à 1916.
Moteurs et transmissions General Electric.

1903-1914 Borland-Grannis Co Chicago IL.
1914-1916 Saginaw MI with Argo & Broc.
1913: Five models with Exide batteries and GE motors


2 passengers Stanhope de la BUFFALO Electric Co (400 Military Road, Buffalo NY, 1903-1915)
1903-1912 Buffalo Electric Co
1912-1915 Buffalo Electric Vehicle Co.
Founded by Francis A. Babcock, he then formed the Babcock Electric Carriage Co. in 1906. In 1912 his old and new companies merged, along with the Buffalo Automobile Station Co, and the Clark Motor Co. They had Diehl motors, Bevel drive, Philadelphia batteries, and a 100" WB.

1903 A 2 pass Stanhope @ $1,650. Said to go 17 MPH for 50 miles.
1913 A 2 seat roadster and a 4-seat coupe both at $2,600.


Hybride CLARK (A. (Albert) F. Clark Co, 1903-1905)

The ELECTRIC VEHICLE Company joins with nine other car builders to form the Licensed Automobile Manufacturers Association.
In 1901, Columbia & Electric Vehicle, renamed the Electric Vehicle Company, acquires the Selden patent and begins actions against various other auto manufacturers for patent infringement.
The group's primary goal is to protect the Selden patent. All members pay royalties on the patent.
Albert A. Pope leaves the Electric Vehicle Company, and starts building the Pope-Hartford in Hartford, CT. Later Pope acquires the Toledo Steamer Co., of Toledo, Ohio, which becomes the Pope-Toledo. Pope then purchases the International Motor Co., Indianapolis, IN, producer of the Waverley Electric. The car is renamed Pope-Waverley.


Voiture électrique 4 kW et à essence ELECTROGENIA de Louis Krieger (Levallois-Perret, 1903-1905).

Elle relie Paris à Châtellerault soit 307 30 km à 17.5 km/h.
Selon la Locomotion automobile : "L'union du pétrole et de l'électricité, c'est l'automobilisme de l'avenir."
Champrobert en 1902.
Omnibus mixte FISCHER (Grande-Bretagne) en service à Londres
On sait que parmi les voitures automobiles électriques il en existe dans lesquelles un moteur à pétrole actionne une dynamo qui transmet l'énergie électrique à des moteurs électriques fixés aux roues de la voiture. M. Fischer a ajouté une batterie d'accumulateurs à ce dispositif déjà bien connu.
A Londres, les deux grandes compagnies d'omnibus, la "London General Omnibus Limited" et la "London Road Company Limited" qui possède près de 5000 omnibus, ayant, après de nombreux essais, décidé d'adopter ce dernier système pour plusieurs de leurs voitures, il nous paraît bon de le décrire,
Les omnibus "mixtes" Fischer comportent 50 places dont 12 à l'intérieur et sont assez semblables, comme aspect général, aux omnibus ordinaires qui circulent si nombreux à Londres.
Le moteur h pétrole est fixé sous le siège conducteur et est accouplé directement à une dynamo multipolaire placée sur l'avant du châssis de la voiture. Ce moteur est du type à 4 cylindres verticaux et peut développer environ 16 chevaux à la vitesse normale de 475 tours par minute ; un volant fixé sur l'arbre du moteur régularise la marche.
Les pistons ont un diamètre de 120 millimètres et une course de 140 millimètres. Quant aux trembleurs, ils sont fixés dans une enveloppe pouvant pivoter autour d'un axe horizontal afin de permettre l'avance ou le retard à l'allumage. Le carburateur employé est du type à vaporisation et est placé au-dessus de la dynamo. Une pompe, actionnée par le moteur, fait circuler l'eau de refroidissement autour des cylindres et dans un radiateur horizontal fixé sous le châssis. Cette eau est fournie par un réservoir placé à l'arrière de la voiture. Le conducteur peut, au moyen de leviers, modifier le mélange explosif et provoquer l'avance ou le retard à l'allumage.
Le courant produit par la dynamo est envoyé par l'intermédiaire d'un contrôleur à 2 moteurs actionnant les roues arrière. Ces moteurs qui sont suspendus au moyen de ressorts au châssis de la voiture, agissent sur les roues arrière par l'intermédiaire d'un engrenage à double réduction de vitesse. Ils sont bipolaires, shunt, de 8 chevaux à 600 tours par minute. Sur chacun des arbres de ces moteurs est fixé un frein et ces deux freins peuvent être actionnés au moyen d'une pédale qui est fixée près du siège.
La dynamo à la vitesse normale du moteur à pétrole, soit 475 tours par minute, produit 9 kilowatts à 125 volts.
La vitesse maximum pour la marche avant est de 18 kilomètres à l'heure et, pour la marche arrière, de 8 kilomètres.
Sous les banquettes de L'intérieur sont distribués 48 accumulateurs qui ont une capacité de 125 ampères-heure.
Le diagramme ci-dessous fera comprendre quel est le rôle de ces accumulateurs dans ce mécanisme compliqué et permettra de se rendre compte de leur position dans le circuit de la dynamo et des moteurs électriques (fig. 2).

A. Moteur à pétrole ; B. Dynamo ; C. Batterie d'accumulateurs ;
D. Contrôleur ; E. Moteurs électriques ; F. Mise en marche du moteur à pétrole.

Si la dynamo qui tourne à vitesse constante, produit plus de courant que n'en exigent les moteurs électriques pour accomplir leur travail, le surplus est emmagasiné par les accumulateurs ; si au contraire, dans une montée par exemple, les moteurs exigent un courant plus fort que celui qu'ils reçoivent de la dynamo, les accumulateurs fournissent la différence. Ces accumulateurs servent donc en réalité de compensateurs et, au moyen d'un voltmètre et d'un ampèremètre placés sous les yeux du conducteur, ce dernier peut suivre exactement les variations du courent.
La mise en marche du moteur à pétrole s'opère en fermant le circuit des accumulateurs sur la dynamo.
La direction de la voiture s'effectue au moyen d'un volant placé à côté du siège et actionnant une crémaillère ; quant aux diamètres des roues, ils sont de 1 mètre pour les roues avant et de 1m,25 pour les roues arrière, elles sont garnies de pneumatiques spéciaux "Hartford" très résistants et de 0m,10 d'épaisseur.
Les moyens d'arrêts se composent, en dehors du freinage électrique, de 2 freins à larges sabots agissant sur les pneumatiques des roues arrière et des 2 freins à tambour agissant sur les moteurs électriques et dont nous avons déjà parlé.
Le courant produit par la dynamo a une intensité de 50 ampères, dont 30 sont absorbés par les moteurs en marche normale ; 20 ampères sont donc employés à la charge des accumulateurs.
Mais, dans une côte d'environ 10 pour 100, c'est-à-dire assez forte, les accumulateurs fournissent aux moteurs électriques un supplément d'environ 15 ampères.
Les omnibus Fischer, qui sont construits aux Etats-Unis, ont été essayés pour la première fois en Angleterre il y a environ deux ans, mais les essais qui ont attiré l'attention des Compagnies d'omnibus de Londres datent seulement du mois de juin de l'année dernière.
L'omnibus de démonstration était plus petit et n'avait en réalité qu'un moteur de 10 chevaux.
Munis des perfectionnements successifs qui ont été exigés car la "London General Omnibus Company Limited" et par la "London Road Car Company Limited", ces omnibus automobiles semblent maintenant fort pratiques malgré leur mécanisme compliqué et l'on ne tardera pas, paraît-il, à en voir de nombreux circuler dans les rues de Londres.

Henri de Thiersant, La Nature, 1903

Omnibuses of that kind or class wherein electric transmission is employed, the power generated by a hydro-carbon motor or internal combustion engine being used as a prime mover to operate a dynamo or dynamos, and the electric current generated by the latter utilized to propel the vehicle through an electric motor or motors, designed by the Fischer Motor Vehicle Company, of Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S., have lately been brought to this country by the Fischer Motor Vehicle Syndicate, of London.
This type of mechanically propelled vehicle is said to have proved very successful in the United States, and tests made in London some time ago by the London General Omnibus Company are stated to have been quite successful at any rate, so far as the satisfactory running of the vehicle was concerned.
The omnibus subjected to the latter tests was one of the double-decked type, adapted to carry 10 inside and 18 outside passengers, or 30 persons altogether, including the driver and conductor. The wheels are of the artillery pattern, the front being 36 ins., and the rear 40 ins. in diameter, and the wheel base 9 ft. 3 ins. The approximate weight of the vehicle is 5 tons 2 cwts. 3 qrs.


The general principle of the Fischer system is shown in the diagram Fig. 58, in which a indicates an internal combustion engine, and b a dynamo direct coupled thereto ; c electric motors, d an accumulator or storage battery, e a controller, and /a switch for starting the engine.
The internal combustion engine a, which is mounted longitudinally or lengthwise of the frame, is of the three-cylinder vertical type, with the cranks set at angles of 120 degrees to each other, and is directly coupled to the dynamo ^, which is mounted in front of it. It has an enclosed crank chamber, with an inspection aperture, closed by a suitable lid or cover at each side, and the crank-shaft, which, owing to the position of the engine, is placed at right angles to the axles, has a fly-wheel mounted as shown on its rear extremity. The inlet valves, which are located above the exhaust valves, are operated by the pressure of the atmosphere.
Ignition is effected by plugs of the high-tension type, and the commutator is driven through bevel gearing from the cam shaft.
The storage battery or accumulator d consists of fifty chloride cells, with a combined capacity of 90 ampere hours. When starting the internal combustion engine the storage battery d is switched on to the dynamo b by the driver, who can in this manner effect the operation from his seat. During running the storage battery is connected across the dynamo terminals, thus keeping the speed of the engine practically constant, any excess of current over and above that required by the electric motors being stored up in the storage battery or accumulator. A combined ammeter and voltmeter is mounted on the driver's seat, the latter being constantly connected across the dynamo terminals. The controller e is of the parallel series type, having five forward and three reverse positions, by means of which the forward movement can be varied up to 10 miles an hour, and the reverse up to 5 miles an hour. The forward positions comprise the following connections, viz. : First, the motors in series with a starting resistance introduced ; second, the motors in series with resistance cut out ; third, the armatures in series and the fields in parallel ; and fourth, the motors in parallel. In addition to this, however, toothed wheels fixed on the outer ends of the motor shafts gear with correspondingly toothed wheels on intermediate shafts, and through toothed pinions on the latter, with toothed wheels secured to the rear, or driving wheels. The above change-speed gear is enclosed in a suitable casing, and by its means and the controller combinations, practically any desired speed can be provided for. The controller operating lever is connected with a contact-making drum, and a suitable catch arrangement prevents the lever from being moved into the reverse positions without releasing this catch. The electric motors are shunt-wound and bipolar, and are completely enclosed, being pivotally supported from the rear axle, and through springs from the main frame, and rigidly connected together, although their shafts are independent of each other. On the inner extremities of the motor shafts, brake drums are provided, a pedal on the right of the steering pillar allowing of both brakes being applied simultaneously, and the former being capable of being connected by a two-way switch, so as to show the amount of current being generated, or the amount being used by the motors.
The springs supporting the main frame are semi-elliptical, and a transverse spring is provided at one end of the front ones. The front axle is of the girder pattern, the steering axles being hinged or jointed to it, and the front springs being bolted to it so that they pass between the upper and lower members of the girder. Steering is on the Ackermann principle, through a rack coupled by a connecting rod to the front wheels, and a hand-wheel mounted on the top of a vertical shaft, having at its lower extremity a pinion gearing, with the above rack.
It will be seen from the above that the internal combustion engine a is the primary source of power, the latter being transmitted to the driving axle by means of the electricity generated. In this manner it is claimed that the advantages of the two systems are retained, whilst their objectionable features are got rid of, or at any rate reduced to a minimum.
According to the makers, the nett efficiency between the prime mover and the wheels, with this system of transmission, is 64 per cent., which bears favourable comparison with mechanical transmissions now in use. The above percentage is estimated on the basis of the bulk of the electric current going directly from the dynamo b to the electric motor c, and taking the efficiency of the dynamo and electric motors at 80 per cent, each, a figure somewhat under that usually guaranteed by manufacturers.
The device for controlling the speed and power of the engine consists of an arrangement of levers which can be operated from the driver's seat, and by means of which the time of ignition and the richness of the explosive mixture can be varied at the will of the operator.
The main advantage possessed by this system is that it admits of the internal combustion engine being run at a constant speed, thus enabling the gas and air mixtures to be permanently set so as to secure as near perfect combustion as possible, and in this manner both effecting a saving in oil consumption and preventing the usual abominable stench given off from the exhaust where more or less imperfect combustion results from the evervarying conditions under which the engine is called upon to work when the power is utilized in the usual manner. It is also stated that with this system a smaller engine can be used, viz. one of one-third the power that would be otherwise required, and it is, moreover, self-starting a not inconsiderable advantage.
So long as the vehicle is running on a level surface, under normal conditions, the whole of the electric current generated passes direct from the dynamo to the electric motors. When running downhill, however, travelling at slow speed : in fact, whenever less power is required for the propulsion of the vehicle, the surplus current is stored in the storage battery or accumulator. This store of energy is drawn upon whenever extra power is required, such as when ascending steep gradients, starting heavy loads, on bad roads, etc. It will, of course, be understood that the above action is completely automatic, and takes place quite independent of the driver. The output of the hydro-carbon engine being constant, no mechanical governor is required, but for the purpose of economy, and to prevent too heavy a current from going into the storage battery, a contrivance is provided, by which the hydro-carbon engine is automatically throttled when the vehicle is at rest.
It is stated that the storage battery required in this system being one of small capacity, it is practicable to build one that will have a comparatively long life, and as applied in this combination it is seldom required to furnish current for more than a few minutes at any one time.
As is well known, ordinary use is necessary to keep a storage battery in good condition. It is discharging too low, and then allowing it to stand without immediate recharging that gives rise to sulphating and buckling, and causes rapid destruction. Under the conditions existing in this vehicle, it is therefore hardly possible for the storage battery to become exhausted.
The reason for the storage battery not becoming over-charged, as might be anticipated, when the vehicle is running with a light load, is accounted for by the fact that, whilst it takes a pressure of 2 1/2 volts to charge the cell of a storage battery, during discharging the pressure is practically 2 volts, thus making a difference of 20 per cent, in voltage between charging and discharging, and, moreover, as in automobile work, the voltage is usually permitted to run down to 1*7 volts per cell before the battery is considered to be anywhere near exhausted; this makes a still greater difference.
A well-charged battery is what may be considered as being lively, that is to say, the solution is rich in acid, which makes the internal resistance low, and consequently the conductivity and capacity for work high. On the other hand, a nearly discharged battery is what may be termed sluggish, and although it may register on the voltmeter when not in use, the capacity for work is absent, because the act of discharging drives the acid out of the solution and into the plates, thus leaving the solution a comparatively poor conductor, which is the reason that a nearly discharged battery does not take hold readily.
The electric motors used in automobile work have a speed corresponding to the voltage, that is to say, when the voltage is high the speed will be high, and vice versa. Consequently when the vehicle is running with so light a load, or on a down gradient, that there is power to spare, the voltage will climb up to the highest possible point, and the motors, and consequently also the vehicle, will run faster, and owing to the increased speed, a greater amount of power will be consumed. When, however, the vehicle is heavily loaded, or is mounting a steep gradient, so that an excessive amount of power is required for propulsion, the engine will slow down, and the voltage will drop sufficiently to admit of the battery furnishing the extra power demanded. At this reduced voltage, the motors, and, consequently, the vehicle, will run at a slower speed, the result of which is claimed to be that even with a heavy load considerably less power is used in proportion.
Under normal conditions the engine works with a constant power output ; the current and pressure, however, vary according to the conditions. For example, if the voltage is high, the current outputs will be low, whilst if the voltage should be low, a corresponding increase in the current output will take place. In this manner it is claimed that there is a general tendency to equalize matters all round, that is to say, that the motors are constantly endeavouring to adapt themselves to the amount of power furnished by the engine.
Practical working has shown that the damage done to storage batteries by overcharging is trifling in comparison with that resulting from allowing them to run down too low. The result of overcharging is merely the evaporation of the solution and the boiling of the battery, that is to say, that the greater part of the acid will be driven out of the plates, and inactive material has been converted into active material. An additional current sent through the batteries is used up in evaporating the water of the solution, which can be easily replenished. During the discharge the process is reversed, the acid acts on the active material and reduces it to inactive, and when the battery is in that condition the acid will combine and form sulphate of lead, which takes up more room than the original material, thereby causing the plates to warp and pull themselves to pieces. When this sulphate is once formed, it can never be brought back again to active material, and this is the reason that batteries lose their capacity if allowed to stand for any length of time after being discharged, without recharging.
As regards the cost of running the Fischer motor omnibus, results deduced from actual working in this country are not at present available. For purposes of comparison, however, it may be mentioned that in the case of a motor waggon on the Fischer principle, running in New York, the cost of working has been found to be 2 1/2 cents., or 1 1/2 d., per mile on average roads. This vehicle weighs four tons, and is capable of carrying a load of eight tons. It is driven by a 12 -horse-power internal combustion engine, the power generated by which is transformed into electricity by means of a dynamo, and operates a pair of 7.5-horse-power electric motors, one of which is geared to each rear wheel. The maximum speed is six miles an hour. It may be mentioned that the motors are guaranteed to carry 100 per cent, over-load for one hour, and will in cases of emergency work up to over 50 horse-power for short periods.
In conclusion, it may be remarked that the weight of the machinery required in the Fischer compound system is not by any means so much in excess of that of an internal combustion engine only, operating direct, as might be expected, as in the former case the engine required is of much smaller capacity than in the latter. It is, nevertheless, undoubtedly, somewhat heavier than would be the case were the propelling power derived from an internal combustion engine fitted with the usual change-speed mechanism, without the electric transmission, and it would appear probable that the cost of the renewal of the storage batteries, the maintenance of the electric generating and driving mechanism, and the additional repairs and renewals required for the proper maintenance of the vehicle and tyres, due to this extra load, would be, therefore, somewhat higher in the case of the compound system.
Against this, however, there is the advantage derived from the abolition of the highly objectionable change-speed gear, and the other advantages already enumerated. There is, furthermore, the reserve stock of electric power in the storage battery to fall back upon in the event of a failure a by no means unlikely occurrence of the internal combustion engine, which would generally be sufficient to carry the 'bus to its destination.

A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905

Heavy-freight Petrol-electric Vehicles FISCHER

These heavy-freight vehicles, the standard pattern of which is shown in Fig. 118, are built upon the same principle as the omnibus described on pp. 137-143, and that description, as also the diagram illustrating the running gear of the omnibus in question, apply equally well in the present case.
The Fischer Company build heavy-freight vehicles on this system with capacities of 5, 8, and 19 tons, the weights of the 5 and 8-ton vehicles, unloaded, being 3 and 4 tons respectively. .
The maximum speed is 6 miles an hour, and any gradients usually encountered and surmounted by horse-drawn vehicles can be negotiated with ease.
The cost of running is given as i\d. (2*5 cents) per mile on average roads.

A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905
Invention de la triode par Lee FORREST (USA) : 1er tube électronique (lampe), précurseur du transistor
construction en série en 1915

Voitures électriques GALLIA et GALLIETTE de la Société d'Electrique de Paris (1903-1908, Paris).
Constructeur des Réginac (voitures Dixi sous licence), vitesse maxi 24 km/h.
La Société d'Electrique complète sa production en construisant des Dixi allemandes à pétrole, sous licence.

GIBBS

HAGEN (Kolner Accumulatorenwerke Gottfried Hagen, Cologne-Kalk, Allemagne, 1903-1908)
German manufacturer of electric cars and cabs
Voitures particulières et commerciales, taxi-cabs, vendues aussi sous le nom d'Urbanus et K.E.W..
Après l'arrêt de production des automobiles en 1908, Hagen continue à produire des batteries d'accumulateurs.

40 CV pétrole/électrique de Ernest W. HART

HEALY & Co (New York, Etats-Unis, 1903-1916)
This custom coachbuilder made about 25 front-wheel-drive electric cars to order.
The first client was the car's designer W. H. Douglas of New Jersey.


Runabout électrique IVANOHE (Canada 1903-1905).
Dessin de H.P. Maxim, précurseur de la Russell de 1906.
Produite par l'E.R. Thomas Motor Company de Toronto, Ontario.

KAMANN Manufacturing Co
Aluminum body and pneumatic seats

Mildé électrique vendue sous le nom de KENSINGTON en Angleterre

KRIEGER-BRASIER Hybride à moteur Richard-Brasier (1903/1906).

This 1903 Krieger proves that there is nothing new under the sun.
This car is a front wheel drive electric-gasoline hybrid car and has power steering. A gasoline engine supplements the battery pack.
Between 1890 and 1910, there were many hybrid electric cars and four wheel drive electric cars. Electric cars were more expensive than gasoline cars and electrics were considered more reliable and safer. With the development of the starter motor for gasoline cars and increased range of gasoline cars, most people public interest switched from electrics to gasoline by 1915 1903-1905 V.E.


Krieger 1894-1909 Indusmine, Paris - Louis Antoine Krieger (1868-1951)
He designed his own drive motors with a second set of parallel windings for regenerative braking. Mostly large heavy outside drive Broughams for cabs.
Krieger-Brasier 1903-1906
These were the hybrid vehicles, (Richard) Brasier was a gas car company owned by Indusmine, same parent as Krieger.
Runabout électrique biplace L.E.M.S. de la London Electromobile Syndicate (George Street, Euston Road, N.W., Londres, GB, 1903-1906/1910)



N° 1, 12 mph, autonomie 40 miles (64 km),
180 guinées.
LIQUID AIR COMPANY
This interesting car, while not electric, is unusual since it shows that early vehicle manufacturers were trying every possible technology. This one is powered by liquefied air (rather cold!).

P&G de Pritchetts and Gold (Feltham, Middlesex, GB, 1903-1904).
Constructeurs de la Meteor à essence.

Voiture électrique POPE-TRIBUNE C/60 (Middlewest, Etats-Unis, 1903-1907)
Voitures Pope-Hartford, Pope-Toledo (Connecticut) et Pope-Tribune (Middlewest).

POPE-WAVERLY (USA, 1903-1907)

Biplace ouverte PRITCHETT & GOLD (Pritchett & Gold Ltd, Feltham, Angleterre, 1903-1904)
Manufacturier de batteries d'accumulateurs.

REGINA (Paris, 1903-1908).
la Société Electrique construisit sous licence des Dixi allemandes à essence 17, 26 et 40 CV, ainsi que des Gallia et Galliettes électriques.

Le 28 octobre 1903, une électromotrice SIEMENS atteint 210 km/h
Ce record sera battu le 21 juin 1931 par le véhicile expérimental à hélice de l'ingénieur allemand Franz Kruckenberg, avec 230 km/h

Voiture électrique SILVERTOWN (Silvertown Co, Londres, GB, 1903-1910)
Successeur de la India Rubber Co, carrosserie W. & F. Thorn.
Modèle à quatre roues motrices en option en 1908 (un moteur sur chaque essieu).

STARR (1903-1904)

Omnibus électrique de The VEHICLE EQUIPMENT Company (Long Island City, New York, Etats-Unis, 1903-1905)


As another example of an electric omnibus may be cited that of the Vehicle Equipment Company, of New York, the sole agents for whom in this country are the Anglo-American Motor Car Company, Limited, of Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.
A type of electric omnibus built by the above company for hotel service has a carrying capacity of about 9 cwts., a maximum speed of 12 miles an hour, and a maximum mileage of 35 miles on one charge.
The arrangement of the running gear of this vehicle is shown, in side elevation, in the diagrammatical view, Fig. 59, in which a indicates the body frame, b the storage battery cradle, c one of the electric motors, d the pedestals supporting the axles, and c the top of the driver's seat.
The body frame a being of steel and of ample strength, relieves the body of the vehicle of any strain or tendency to buckle, and also affords a substantial support for suspending the battery, so as to leave the interior of the vehicle absolutely clear.
The running gear is of a "pedestal" type, patented by the makers, and consists of a single steel casting secured to the steel body frame a. The axles are supported in the jaws of the pedestals d, in such a manner as to have perfect freedom of motion in a vertical direction, through a sufficient range to permit full play of the springs.
Each of the rear, or driving, wheels of the vehicle is operated independently by an electric motor, c, and the controller is located beneath the driver's seat, and is operated by direct connection with a hand lever. Four different speeds ahead, and two speeds in a reverse direction, can be effected by means of the controller. Steering is on the Ackermann principle, and the arrangement is strong and reliable. On the heavier class of vehicle it is operated by a steering wheel, and on the lighter ones by means of a steering bar, or lever.
The storage battery is made in sectional trays, adapted to slide into the battery cradle , which latter is so constructed that the trays can be drawn out on whichever side of the vehicle may be found to be the most convenient. An important advantage possessed by this arrangement of battery cradle is that the batteries are thus made accessible in a few minutes without necessitating the use of a hydraulic lift. The storage battery is charged at 100 to 115 volts, direct current, and at an amperage of from 30 to 60.
The wheels are of the artillery pattern, wooden spokes and felloes with metal hubs, and are shod with solid indiarubber tyres, which latter are, according to the makers, found preferable in practical working owing to the avoidance of difficulties with punctures, etc., whilst quiet and easy riding is ensured by mounting the body frame a on extra long and flexible springs. Ample brake power is provided, and the vehicle is fitted with electric side-lights, etc.

A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905

Light 8-cwt. electric van de The VEHICLE EQUIPMENT Company

The Vehicle Equipment Company Light Electric Vans This company, whose sole agents here, as has been already mentioned with respect to electric omnibuses, are the Anglo-American Motor Car Company, Limited, are builders of several patterns and sizes of light delivery electric vans, one of which, having a capacity of about 8 cwts., is illustrated in Fig. 63. The maximum speed per hour of this vehicle is 12 miles, and the radius on one charge is 35 miles. The running gear is practically similar to that described (and shown in Fig. 59) with reference to their electric omnibuses, which gear is, indeed, common to all their vehicles, and consequently needs no further description.
A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905
Heavy-freight electric trolley de The VEHICLE EQUIPMENT Company


Several types of heavy-freight vehicles propelled by electric power are built by the Vehicle Equipment Company, who are represented in this country by the Anglo-American Motor Car Company, Limited, London.
Fig. 120 shows a 4-ton trolley built by this company, and used for the transport of flour, which it is claimed to perform with complete success. They have also constructed a number of lorries, waggons, furniture vans, and other heavy-freight electric vehicles, the frames and running gears of all of which are designed upon the same principle as those of their electric omnibuses, which have been already described and illustrated on pp. 145 to 147, and which consequently need not be again gone into.

A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905
Electric furniture van de The VEHICLE EQUIPMENT Company

An example of an electrically driven furniture van is shown in Fig. 128. This vehicle is built by the Vehicle Equipment Company of New York (the sole agents for whom in this country are the Anglo-American Motor Car Company, Limited), the running gear being similar to that described in a previous chapter with reference to the delivery vans by the same makers.
A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905
Electric ambulance de The VEHICLE EQUIPMENT Company

For motor ambulances electricity would appear to be an ideal power. Absence of danger, smell, a minimum of vibration, and ease of control are essential features for this service. An electrically propelled vehicle is besides, so long as care is taken to keep the storage battery charged, available at any time for instant use, and the absence of any delay in starting is obviously a most important consideration in the case of an ambulance. Steam is, however, also used, and in some ways possesses special advantages. The vibration of internal combustion engines renders them unsuitable for the purpose.
The above facts have been long recognized in the United States, and electric ambulances are in extensive use by all the best hospitals in that country. Fig. 129 is an example of an electric ambulance built by the Vehicle Equipment Company. As will be seen from the illustration, the vehicle is of the rear opening type. The bed is self-supporting when pulled out, and its dimensions are 7 ft. 6 ins. in length by 3 ft. 4 ins. in width.
The overall length of the vehicle is u ft., and the width of the body 3 ft. 9 ins. The interior is lined with white enamel veneering, and trimmed in either rubber cloth or leather, and a surgeon's seat, medicine cabinet, and all the other necessary appurtenances are provided, as well as a head light, side lights, and inside lights.
The ambulance has a maximum speed of 16 miles an hour, and a radius on one charge of 30 miles.

A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; a practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905